Control Phase
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Before and After

To show the improvements

 

Why to use this tool?

 

Document where we started the project and compare it with what it looks like after the project is completed today. These are very exciting results that everyone can see.

 

How to use this tool?

 

Do the same tests you did at the beginning of the project and perform them again at the end of the project.

Step 1: Perform the normality test and compare results. Place both results next to each other.

Step 2:  Perform the stability test and compare results. Place both results next to each other.

Step 3: Perform the capability test and compare results. Place both results next to each other.

Step 4: If you have a continuous Y, put all the Y data (old data plus new data) in one column in Minitab and “Before / After” (discrete data) in a second column. This way you will be able to compare the Y data using a 2-Sample T-test to observe if there is a difference in the means. You will also be able to perform an Equal Variances Test to see if there is a difference in the spread.

           

 

When to use this tool?

In the control phase, at the end of the phase / project.

 

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Compare the defect rates.

Do: Compare the Sigma values.

Do: Explain the results in your project documentation.

 

Don´t: Close the project in case you notice that you still have special cause variation.

Don´t: Close the project in case you have a low P-Value (below 0.05) in the run chart, because you should make sure you have a stable process before you close the project.

Don´t: Bombard management with too much Six Sigma language in the final presentation :-)

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I-MR

Individual and Moving Range

 

Why to use this tool?

 

To ensure that your process is under control and to verify that you do not have a special cause variation, meaning your data points are within + / - 3 standard deviations. It is important that your process runs between the upper control limits (UCL) and lower control limits (LCL).

 

 

How to use this tool?

 

Use the data you collected on Y, which is your defect definition and put them all in one column in Minitab.

Step 1: You should have at least 30 data points.

Step 2: If you have a continuous Y, in Minitab select: Stat > Control Charts > Variables Charts for Individuals > I-MR…

Step 3: In the “Variables” section, select your Y.

Step 4: Select “OK” and place results in your project presentation. If your data points are within both red lines (UCL & LCL), your process is under control and does not have special cause variation.

 

 

When to use this tool?

 

As I-MR is a control chart, it should be used in the control phase to ensure that the process is under control. Nevertheless, one could also perform the I-MR at the beginning of the project (measure phase) to verify if we have special cause variation at the beginning of the project and start writing down our observations. This will help us ask the right questions during the workshop sessions with our project team members.

Conclusion: It is a tool for the control phase but can also be used for other phases of the project.

 

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Place data Y in the chronological order in which the data was collected. For example, data point 1 was from phone call number 1, then data point 2 was from the 2nd phone call and so on.

Do: Collect more than 30 data points.

Do: Enable the subject matter experts to use the I-MR, as they will be the ones performing these tests after GB/BB closes the project.

 

Don´t: Forget that you can also have a control chart for the individual Xs.

Don´t: Mix your “before” and “after” data in the same column. When creating a control chart, always use the latest (optimized process) data.

Don´t: Forget to include the I-MR chart as a regular “to do” in the Control Plan at the end of the project (control phase). The test should be performed regularly.

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Control Plan

To make sure we are monitoring process performance

 

Why to use this tool?

 

To ensure that process performance is under control and monitored. In case performance does not meet expectations, an escalation process will be triggered combined with corrective actions, allowing to keep within our upper and lower specification limits.

 

 

How to use this tool?

 

Step 1: Fill-in all basic information in the template, such as:

  • department name (each department in end-to-end process should have one, unless you have a process owner who has one control plan for the entire process)

  • process name

  • project name

  • project ID

  • revision date

  • prepared by

  • approved by

  • process owner

  • date

  • document number

  • start date

  • revision number

Step 2: Enter details into the control plan template, such as:

  • corresponding X that must be controlled

  • name of the process step

  • what needs to be checked

  • type of parameter

  • CTQ metric

  • UCL, LCL, USL, LSL

  • measurement method

  • sample size

  • measurement frequency

  • who measures (owner)

  • where is it recorded

  • corrective actions

  • reference number (optional).

Step 3: Train employees how to use the control plan.

Step 4: Ask the task owners to lock this task on their schedule using the recurring calendar feature.

           

 

When to use this tool?

 

This tool is to be used in the control phase.

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Engage the team leader or department head to approve the control plans and to make sure that their employees are actively use the control plan and meet their revision deadlines.

Do: Recommend the team leader to place the review of the control plan on the agenda for the team meeting.

Do: Try to have an automated control plan that does not rely on manual labor.

 

Don’t: Forget to agree on a standardized escalation process.

Don´t: Save the control plan document in a place where no one can find it :-)

Don´t: Overdo the number of control points. Just set controls where absolutely required, otherwise it will be seen as a MUDA.

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Data Collection Plan

To be clear what type of data should be collected

 

Why to use this tool?

To create a roadmap on how to collect what kind of data so that we can run statistical tests for our control phase. This should be linked to the data required in the control plan.

 

 

How to use this tool?

 

Step 1: When looking at the control plan, inform your project team what data needs to be collected.

Step 2: With their help, find out where this type of data could be collected.

Step 3: Create a data collection plan using the format shown in the template. You can enter the data into Excel or directly into your statistical software (for example Minitab).

Step 4: Make your measurement system for data collection accurate and reliable by using tools such as Gage R&R, for example. Then set standards for everyone who collects the data.

Step 5: Collect at least 30 data points.

 

 

When to use this tool?

 

When running the normality, stability, and capability tests, we will need a data collection plan in the measure phase.  

As we go further into our project and need to collect more data for the analyze phase, a data collection plan for the analyze phase is needed.

In most projects, the data collection plan is mainly used in the analyze phase because data for Y already exists and then additional data is needed for each potential X.

When we are in the control phase and creating a control plan, we will need a data collection plan that is linked to the data needed for the control plan.

 

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Collect at least 30 data points (the more data points the better).

Do: Make sure everyone collecting data follows the same standard. This will ensure that we have stable, accurate and reliable data.

Do: Put the data in columns (vertical order) and follow the correct sequence. For example, the first data point appears first, the second data point appears second in the data collection plan, and so on. This is especially important when performing the run chart (stability test).

 

Don’t: Collect more data than required by the control plan.

Don´t: Forget to check if data collection can be done automatically to limit manual work (only where it makes sense, because we do not want to invest money in automating something when not necessary). The ROI needs to be calculated.

Don´t: Rely on data that you do not know where it is coming from or how it was collected.

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Dismantling the Old Process

So that it is impossible to fall back to outdated procedures

 

Why to use this tool?

 

To make sure that employees don’t fall back to the old process by mistake.

 

 

How to use this (tool)?

 

It is not really a tool as it is more a task at the end of the project. It may be connected to the Poka-Yoke principle, called prevention, because it prevents you from gaining access to the old process again.  

 

Step 1: Turn off old systems.

Step 2: Deny access to old documents or delete them.

Step 3: Delete old forms and templates.

Step 4: Put old process maps and SOPs in an “old” folder.

Step 5: Upgrade employee skills.

Step 6: Enter the updated SOPs and process maps on the department drive for everyone to use when needed.

 

 

When to use this tool?

 

This tool should be used in the control phase.

 

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Dismantle the old process at the same time as implementing the new one.

Do: Inform employees what was “dismantled”.

Do: Contact your IT department to remove licenses no longer required to lower annual fees on licenses that are not needed for specific software or systems.

 

Don’t: Forget to inform the employees who were not present during the transition to the new process (those who were on leave, training, or a parental leave).

Don´t: Forget to test if it is impossible to run the old process (Poka-Yoke).

Don´: Forget that in the beginning the team leader or head of department will need to spend more time supporting their staff during this transition phase.

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Identify Process Owner

To make sure someone is accountable for the end-to-end process

 

Why to use this (tool)?

 

It is not really a tool, but rather a task that needs to be done. It is important to do this task, so we have a person who is held accountable for the end-to-end process. Once we have identified this person, they will be able to observe the entire process performance and act when necessary.

 

 

How to use this tool?

 

Step 1: Verify if a process owner already exists or not.

Step 2: If a process owner does not exist, talk to the project sponsor if they know who the ideal process owner could be. Many times, it happens to be the project champion who will also become the process owner.

Step 3: Announce the project owner to the project team and end-to-end stakeholders and inform them of the role and responsibilities of a process owner.

 

 

When to use this tool?

 

In the control phase before closing the project.

 

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Inform heads of departments that they should collaborate with the process owner who has a comprehensive view of the process.

Do: Inform the process owner that they should provide regular feedback to the end-to-end process stakeholders.

Do: Agree with your project sponsor who would be the ideal person. It should not be a junior person. Ideally, it should be someone in a leadership position who cares about this process.

 

Don’t: Close the project without informing the process owner the vital Xs of the process.

Don´t: Forget to train the process owner in his/her new role and responsibilities.

Don´t: Forget to involve the process owner in identifying the escalation process and what needs to be done after escalation has been triggered.

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Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility

It is a MSA (Measurement System Analysis) tool

 

Why to use this tool?

 

To assess the accuracy and precision of a measurement system as data is collected, we need to make sure it is reliable.

 

 

How to use this tool?

Step 1: In Minitab, create a single column called “attribute”. Select the desired measurement results from the data collection team.

Step 2: Select at least 35 questions and put the correct answers in the “Attribute” column.

Step 3: Ask questions of at least 3 data collectors and write their answers in separate columns called, Operator 1 Trial 1, Operator 2 Trial 1, and Operator 3 Trial 1.

Step 4: A few days later, ask the same data collectors the same questions again, but in a different order, and write the answers in additional columns called, Operator 1 Trial 2, Operator 2 Trial 2, Operator 3 Trial 2.

Step 5: In Minitab, select: Stat > Quality Tools > Attribute Agreement Analysis…

Step 6: Click “Multiple Columns” and select all 3 operators for Trial 1 and

Trial 2.

Step 7: In the “Number of Appraisers” field enter 3.

Step 8: In the “Number of Trials” field enter 2.

Step 9: In the “Known Standard/Attribute” section, double-click the attribute column (which has the correct answers).

Step 10: Select “OK” and include the results in your project documentation.

Step 11: If your score for “Between Appraisers” and “All Appraisers vs. Standard“ is below 90%, you will need to optimize the measurement system before proceeding with the project. When the score reaches 90% or more, you can continue with the project.

Note: “Between Appraisers” gives us the score on the repeatability for the responses given by our operators, while “All Appraisers vs. Standard” is the score that compares their input to the “Attribute” column, containing the correct answers.

 

 

When to use this tool?

 

In the measure phase, before all statistics are verified and again in the analyze phase. We use the MSA principle one last time in the control phase to make sure the measurement system continues to perform well after modifying the process.

 

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Select at least 3 operators / systems / data collectors.

Do: Perform at least 2 trials for each collector.

Do: Find root causes and make improvements to the measurement system in case you get a score below 90%.

 

Don’t: Skip the MSA!

Don´t: Continue or close the project in case the MSA is not yet stable enough (for example, 90% or more for Gage R&R results). To optimize the measurement system, it can itself be a small project.

Don´t: Skip the MSA if you cannot apply Gage R&R tool to your project. There are other creative ways to verify the accuracy of your measurement system ;-)

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Post Implementation COPQ

Calculate your new COPQ after process improvement

 

Why to use this tool?

 

To find out what the true cost of our process is. This enables us to:

  • Set the price of our products and services to our customer

  • Check whether we need to improve the process

  • Compare the new COPQ with the COPQ calculated at the beginning of the project.

 

 

How to use this tool?

 

Step 1: Calculate your process entitlement costs (what the process cost should be when everything is running optimally).

Step 2: Calculate the running costs of the process considering all rework loops, inspections, emails, 8 wastes, etc.

Step 3: Subtract the running total costs from the entitlement costs. The negative number is your cost of poor quality (COPQ).

Step 4: Calculate the difference between COPQ at project start and new COPQ calculated at project end (see template example).

Step 5: Calculate and highlight any additional hard or soft savings that have occurred as a result of the process changes.

 

 

When to use this tool?

 

In the measure phase you will have the initial COPQ and then again at the end of the project in the control phase.

 

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Calculate hard and soft savings.

Do: Verify the accuracy of your calculations with your project champion / sponsor and SME.

Do: Calculate the difference between COPQ before the project and COPQ at project end.

 

Don’t: Avoid placing COPQ forecast in the project charter at the beginning of your project. You can always adjust your forecast during the project implementation and learn more about the process.

Don´t: Forget to verify the numbers with finance. Some companies require sign-off by the finance department at the start and/or end of the project.

Don´t: Forget that some companies calculate COPQ from 12-, 24- and 36-month perspective. Depending on the project, some might even go up to 5 years. Make sure you are using the correct calculations by selecting the correct time frame that used in your organization.

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Scorecards and KPIs

As dashboard

 

Why to use this tool?

 

To monitor, control, and continuously optimize a process.

How to use this tool?

 

Step 1:  Define the focus areas of the end-to-end process. For example, does the process owner or management want to see the finances of the process? Or maybe they want to see customer satisfaction indicators? Here are the most common categories:

  • Financial

  • Customer (VOC)

  • Employee (learning and growth)

  • Process (VOB).

Step 2: Identify the CTQs to the above bullet points (see separate video on CTQ).

Step 3: Link the corresponding KPIs (metrics) to the CTQs.

Step 4: Define the exact goal.

Step 5: Indicate today´s performance.

Step 6: Calculate the gap between today´s performance and the desired state.

 

 

When to use this tool?

 

This tool should be used in the control phase.

           

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Consult with management and process owner what is really needed for the dashboard.

Do: Schedule a regular meeting with management to review data and information.

Do: Check if you can build a project pipeline that results from the column named “gap”.

 

Don’t: Introduce more metrics than needed, otherwise it will be a waste (MUDA).

Don´t: Forget to set SPC alarms (see separate video) that will help trigger an escalation process in case process performance deteriorates.

Don´t: Forget that data used for the SPC alarms should also be accurate, reliable, and stable. Therefore, remember the topic of MSA (Gage R&R).

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SPC Alarms

Statistical Process Control

 

Why to use this tool?

 

To monitor, control, and continuously optimize a process.

 

 

How to use this tool?

 

Step 1: Create SPC plans for the end-to-end process by defining who will measure and monitor the process with what frequency. Here you also set the escalation process (see template).

Step 2: Create as many SPC templates as needed. It is usually linked to the vital Xs in the process. Once you have all these templates, send them to the owners.

Step 3: Train owners to use the control tools. For example, how to transfer data to statistical software to run control charts. Teach them how to interpret these control charts. Ensure they know how and when they need to trigger the escalation process.

Step 4: Run a pilot test to see if the SPC alarms are working properly.

 

 

When to use this tool?

 

In the control phase.

 

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Try to automate SPC alarms. If this is not possible, it can be kept as a manual task so that someone does a regular check.

Do: Ensure SPC alarm owners have undergone LSS training. This will enable them to take their new skills to the next level through continuous process optimization.

Do: Place SPC alarms and control chart results on the department dashboard (digital board or physical board).

 

Don’t: Go overboard with SPC alarms, only have as many as needed. Anything beyond what is required is seen as MUDA. Therefore, be flexible in deleting SPC alarms or maybe even replacing them with other more, useful ones.

Don´t: Forget to have the SPC alarm owners make an overall monthly report for management / process owner. Ideally, the process owner will collect the monthly data from all SPC alarm owners so that they can analyze overall data and process performance.

Don´t: Forget that data used for the SPC alarms should also be accurate, reliable, and stable. Therefore, remember the topic of MSA (Gage R&R) topic.

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Standardize New Processes

To have the same level of quality

 

Why to use this tool?

 

To ensure everyone follows the same agreed standard.

 

 

How to use this tool?

 

Step 1: After making all the improvements into the process, use the template provided by WAVE (see video).

Step 2: For each new standard existing in the process, one should define:

  • name of the process step

  • description the new standard

  • link to X from the project

  • confirmation that the standard has been updated in the SOP (Standard Operating Procedures)

  • verification that the training plan has been scheduled

  • confirmation when team members have received training on the new standard

  • description where the new process maps were saved

  • proof that old process maps have been removed or placed in a folder named “old”

  • validation that pilot phase has been completed

  • verification whether control plan has been created and it is in use.

Step 3: Repeat the above steps for each standard that has been implemented in the process.

 

 

When to use this tool?

 

In the control phase, when all improvements and standards have been implemented in the process.

 

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Start using this template at the end of the improve phase to make sure that everything has been completed in the control phase.

Do: Link each standard to the identified vital X. This way, it will be easy to track the standards in the project documentation in case team members need to refer to the documentation when the process starts to become unstable.

Do: Use PDCA and SDCA cycles to continuously revise and improve the current standards.

 

Don’t: Do not forget to inform everyone that the current standard only applies until a new, even better standard is created.

Don´t: Let the current standard kill innovative ideas for further process improvements.

Don´t: Forget to turn off everything related to the old standards. For example, old Excel sheets or old outdated templates.

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Training für Fachexperten

Um sie mit dem neuen Prozess auf den neuesten Stand zu bringen

 

Why to use this tool?

 

To ensure all employees working on the new end-to-end process know exactly what needs to be done.

 

 

How to use this tool?

 

Step 1: Make sure your employees receive a training plan during the final implementation of all process improvements.

Step 2: Decide if you want to do a big training for everyone or a few training sessions in smaller waves.

Step 3: Create training documentation and training plan that will indicate which employee will take over the training for which part of the process. In many cases, the person who owns a specific action (from the action plan) will be the one to facilitate the training for those affected by this change.

Step 4: Create a training plan and send appointments to everybody. If needed, you can create your own structure or use the template displayed on the video.

 

 

When to use this tool?

 

This tool is meant to be used in the control phase.

 

 

3 Do´s and 3 Don’ts:

 

Do: Involve everyone affected by the process changes and find out who is absent. This way, you can track the people who are returning and inform them to contact the person who conducted the training.

Do: Have a subject matter expert show how the new process works.

Do: Create a training plan and send out invitations in advance.

 

Don’t: Forget about employees who are currently absent. Upon their return, they should receive training before working on the process.

Don´t: Need to hire a professional facilitator because they are not as in-depth into the process as the people who run the process daily. A professional facilitator might have presentation skills, but not the ability to delve into the process.

Don´t: Forget that training can take place directly at the workplace as it is easier to run the process by doing it.

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